Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Largo-Marsh, L. K. (1996). The relationships among expectancy, hypnotizability, and treatment outcome associated with eye movement desensitization in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI. AAT 9636868.
Two treatments: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) or structured writing sessions. A standardized diagnostic interview was used to screen subjects and provide diagnosis and symptom profile at intake and one-month follow-up. Standardized self-report measures were used to assess treatment outcomes. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the two treatments. Both treatments were effective in significantly reducing post-traumatic symptoms at post-test and follow-up, although slightly different patterns were evident. EMDR subjects tended to evidence a larger reduction in symptoms immediately after treatment, while subjects assigned to the writing condition evidenced more gradual improvement, which continued between post-test and follow-up periods. Measures of subject expectations regarding treatment effectiveness revealed no statistical correlation to treatment outcome. Similarly, hypnotic susceptibility was found to be unrelated to the effectiveness of either treatment. [Author Abstract]
2. Largo-Marsh, L. K., & Spates, C. R. (2002, December). The effects of writing therapy in comparison to EMD/R on traumatic stress: The relationship between hypnotizability and client expectancy to outcome. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 33(6), 581-586. doi:10.1037//0735-7028.33.6.581.
Many psychologists encourage clients to engage in journal writing to supplement individual psychotherapy. Empirical evidence supports the use of writing when targeted at traumatic memories. The most thoroughly researched writing strategy suggests that writing is most effective when it targets a specific memory along with the emotional components of that memory. Effective writing therapy is thus procedurally similar to effective exposure therapy for fear and traumatic memories. This investigation examined structured writing as a self-contained treatment by comparing it to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and it was found to be effective. [Adapted from Author Abstract]
3. Musruck, D., & Pringle, A. (2003, July). Korean war flashbacks: Treating PTSD. Mental Health Nursing, 23(4), 4-8.
United Kingdom military personnel have been involved in the recent Iraq war. While fatalities and casualties were relatively light compared to other conflicts historically, individual incidents can, nevertheless, have a lasting impact on individuals who witness them or are involved. Subsequent wars, though not participated in, can lead to a recurrence of damage. In this case study, the authors illustrate the use of scripted exposure and EMDR in the treatment of John, an English veteran of the Korean War who presented with PTSD. Scripted exposure involves the patient keeping a written record of their most intrusive and distressing thoughts and feelings. [Author Abstract]