Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography

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1. Bauman, W., & Melnyk, W. (1994, March). A controlled comparison of eye movements and finger tapping in the treatment of test anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25(1), 29-33. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(94)90060-4.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
15 pairs of introductory statistics students, matched on initial test anxiety, were randomly assigned to eye movement desensitization (EMD) or control (finger tapping) conditions to test whether EMD effectively treats test anxiety and, if so, whether eye movement is the critical factor. Both groups had significant decreases in subjective units of disturbance during treatment, suggesting that another source of attenuation of elicited anxiety may be as effective as eye movement in reducing anxiety. There was a significant decrease in Test Anxiety Inventory Emotionality Scale scores from pretest to follow up for both groups, but mixed results on the Worry Scale and total anxiety scores. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Adults  Anxiety Disorders  College Students  EMD  Life Experiences  Survivor  Treatment Effectiveness  


2. Cook-Vienot, R., & Taylor, R. J. (2012). Comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 62-72. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.6.2.62.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and Biofeedback/Stress Inoculation Training (B/SIT) treatment and no treatment (NT) were compared in reducing test anxiety. Thirty college students with high test anxiety were randomly assigned to each condition. Pre-post assessments were conducted using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Rational Behavior Inventory (RBI), and Autonomic Perception Questionnaire (APQ). Treatment therapists were licensed professionals with at least 2 years experience in their respective modality. Statistical analysis using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures found significant interactions between time (pre-post) and treatment conditions for all measures except the RBI. Post hoc Newman–Keuls analyses were conducted on the change scores, indicating that both EMDR and B/SIT significantly reduced test anxiety. EMDR generally outperformed B/SIT.

Keywords: Biofeedback  Stress Inoculation  Test Anxiety  


3. Enright, M. B. (1996, August). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of test anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 57(2-B), 1436.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
This study explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students who scored above the 50th percentile on test anxiety were randomly assigned to either a treatment or wait-list control group. Subjects received two 1 hour sessions of EMDR. After posttesting, the control group also received EMDR treatment. The treatment group had a significant reduction in Test Anxiety Inventory total score, emotionality scale score, worry scale score, and state anxiety as compared to the control group. After treatment, the control group matched the experimental group for significant reductions on all dependent measures. The subject group as a whole had significant reductions in subjective units of distress during treatment as well as a significant increase in the validity of positive self-statements. Reductions in anxiety measures were maintained at one month follow-up. The differential effect of EMDR on subjects based on gender and pretreatment level of trait anxiety was also examined. Subjects with high trait anxiety had a greater reduction in total test anxiety, emotionality, and worry on posttesting as compared to subjects with lower trait anxiety. Males and females were found to respond equally to the treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: Anxiety Management  College Students  Empirical Study  Test Anxiety  Treatment of Test Anxiety  Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial  


4. Enright, M., Baldo, T. D., & Wykes, S. D. (2000, Spring). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy technique in the treatment of test anxiety of college students. Journal of College Counseling, 3(1), 36-48. doi:10.1002/j.2161-1882.2000.tb00162.x.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Explores the efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of test anxiety. Thirty-five college students with test anxiety were assigned to either a treatment or delayed treatment control group. EMDR was shown to be effective in reducing overall test anxiety as well as "emotionality" and "worry" components of test anxiety. (Author)

Keywords: College Students  Higher Education  Stress Management  Stress Variables  Test Anxiety  Therapy  


5. Faust, T. (2012, June). EMDR, los estados del yo, los policías y las reinas en un caso de ansiedad ante los exámenes[EMDR, ego states, policemen and Queens in a case of test anxiety]. Presentation at the 13th EMDR Europe Association Conference, Madrid, Spain.

Language: Spanish

Format: Conference

Abstract:
We present a case of Test Anxiety, handled using a combination of EMDR and Ego State Short Term Therapy. Shira, aged 27, is a bright science student. She recently failed a math test due to an anxiety attack. Shira feels that her ability to complete her degree studies is under a real threat. Reported symptoms: great stress, chest pain, pessimistic thoughts, and a general feeling of low self-­‐esteem. The treatment consisted of four sessions before her forthcoming math exam, and a fifth follow-­‐up session after it. The therapeutical approach Psycho-­‐educational counseling, self-­‐relaxation and guided imagery, EMDR phobia protocol (Shapiro F.), use of puppets for work on Ego States (Cohen-­‐Posey K.) based on Voice Dialogue (Stone). During her EMDR processing, Shira chose different puppets to represent both her negative and positive cognitions (PC, NC). A Policeman puppet (NC) represented the "protecting part" of the vulnerable child. This failed part lacks in self-­‐confidence and blocks her progress. Shira's successful PC part is represented by the Queen puppet. She is sure Shira will succeed, because she's able to. During the desensitization process, Shira created a dialogue between her different parts, and empowered the successful, functioning, Queen part. This reinforced her self-­‐esteem and her Ego Awareness The awareness of these parts in her becomes a resource used by Shira for a successful performance in her math exam, in which she gets the highest grades. We shall present the protocol of our sessions, and the use of puppets as projection tools of the Ego parts.

Presentamos un caso de ansiedad ante exámenes, llevado a través del uso del EMDR y la terapia breve de estados del Ego combinados. Shira, tiene 27 ańos, es una brillante estudiante de ciencias. Recientemente suspendió un test de matemáticas debido a un ataque de ansiedad. Shira siente que su habilidad para completar sus estudios de grado esta bajo una amenaza real. Síntomas registrados: Gran estrés, dolor de pecho, pensamientos pesimistas, y sentimientos generales de baja autoestima. El tratamiento consistió en cuatro sesiones antes de su siguiente examen de matemáticas, y un seguimiento de 5 sesiones después de este. El enfoque terapéutico. El consejo psico-­‐educacional, auto-­‐relajación e imaginación guiada, protocolo EMDR para fobia(Shapiro F.), uso de marionetas para trabajar con los estados del Ego (Cohen-­‐Posey K.) basado en el la voz del dialogo (Stone). Durante su procesamiento EMDR, Shira escoge diferentes marionetas para representar sus cogniciones negativas y positivas (PC, NC). Una marioneta de agente de policía (NC) representaba la “parte protectora” de un nińo vulnerable. Esta parte fallo en su autoconfianza y bloque su progreso. La parte que representaba el éxito de Shira PC era la marioneta de la Reina. Ella estaba segura de que Shira Durante el proceso de desensibilización, Shira creó un dialogo entre sus diferentes partes, y reforzó el existo, y el funcionamiento de la parte de la Reina. Esto reforzó su autoestima y su conciencia del Ego. La conciencia de estas partes se convirtió en un recurso usado por Shira para el existo en la realización de su examen de matemáticas, en donde saco las notas más altas. Presentaremos el protocolo con nuestras sesiones y el uso de marionetas como herramientas de proyección de las partes del ego.

Keywords: Ego States  Policement, Queens  Test Anxiety  


6. Gosselin, P. W. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of test anxiety: A study of the effects of eye movement and expectancy on the procedure's results. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 55(3), 1174.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, abbreviated EMDR, is a recently discovered technique acclaimed as a major breakthrough for the reduction of anxiety. Numerous anecdotal studies have been presented showing the efficacy of EMDR. There are currently no published studies investigating use of EMDR specifically for test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to use the EMDR technique to study its efficacy for test anxiety. This study also examined whether or not high and low expectancy conditions significantly affected scores on post-session anxiety ratings. In addition, the procedure was used with and without eye movement to see whether or not eye movement was a critical factor in eliciting positive change in anxiety ratings. A single session of approximately one hour was conducted individually with 41 subjects, college students reporting test anxiety. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four conditions reflecting varying combinations of eye movement and expectancy conditions. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance was conducted for expectancy and eye movement factors on two dependent measures. These measures were Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDs) and the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Results of the study show a significantly greater amount of reduction in the SUDs using the eye movement supporting the hypothesis that eye movement is critical to the efficacy of EMDR. No other statistically significant main effects or interactions were found with measuring the SUDs or TAI. However, it should be noted that all groups showed substantial reductions in post-treatment TAI scores. The expectancy conditions presented to subjects also had no measureably significant effects. There was anecdotal support of the power of the eye movement but no significant behavioral changes other than the reduction in SUDs. It was concluded that EMDR is worthy of further study with larger samples of the test anxious population. Further study may want to use EMDR in conjunction with other techniques and for more than one session.

Keywords: Test Anxiety  


7. Gosselin, P., & Matthews, W. (1995, December). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of test anxiety:  A study of the effects of expectancy and eye movement. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26(4), 331-337. doi:10.1016/0005-7916(95)00038-0.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a recently invented technique acclaimed as a major breakthrough for a range of anxiety-related symptoms. To determine the importance of the eye movement and expectancy variables, we conducted a one-hour session with 41 undergraduate subjects (11 males and 30 females) with test anxiety. A 2 (eye movement vs no eye movement) x 2 (high expectancy vs low expectancy) analysis of variance was performed on 3 dependent measures: (1) Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDs); (2) Validity of Cognition Scale (VOC); and (3) the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). The data indicate that all subjects, regardless of treatment condition, showed a significant decrease in anxiety on the TAI. Subjects in the eye-movement condition reported feeling less anxious (SUDs) than those in the no-eye-movement condition. We found no significant main effect or interactions for any of the dependent measures for expectancy. [Author Summary]

Keywords: Adults  Americans  College Students  Experimental Stressors  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Survivors  Treatment Effectiveness  


8. Hampel, J. C. (1997, November). The effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on self-reported test anxiety in college students. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58(5-B), 2676.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Test anxiety is a common problem among students in western culture due to the importance of academic achievement and the consequences for failure. Many consider test anxiety to be primarily an issue of poor study habits and test readiness. However, some students who appear to possess excellent study habits also appear to experience severe anxiety during tests. A recent meta-analysis of test anxiety research substantiated these claims, finding that test anxiety appeared to be an emotionally-based as opposed to a cognitively-based problem. Despite these findings, the etiologies for test anxiety remain unknown. Similar to nearly all DSM-IV diagnostic categories, test anxiety is a syndrome with no known pathognomonic sign(s) which singularly diagnose the condition. Hence, treatments for test anxiety, as for nearly all other DSM-IV mental disorders are symptomatic as opposed to strategic. Unfortunately, there are few symptomatic treatments for test anxiety that are both efficient and effective.Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), which was developed for the symptomatic treatment of PTSD, was chosen to treat the symptoms of test anxiety for the following essential reasons: (a) the reported efficacy of EMDR with PTSD; (b) the similarities between test anxiety and PTSD that include intrusive thoughts, inability to concentrate, behavioral avoidance, and emotional symptomatology; and (c) the need for a brief, effective symptomatic treatment for test anxiety. Using a waiting control group against which to compare the treatment group and subsequently replicate treatment effects, the results found that EMDR was highly effective for the symptomatic reduction of self-reported test anxiety as measured by all test anxiety scales. Moreover, these results also suggest that measures of study habits and attitudes are also sensitive to enhancement as a result of treatment with EMD/R. Although the current results did not suggest specific mechanism(s) by which EMDR was effective, the pattern of highly effective results across widely different types of test anxiety presentations suggests the actions of an active placebo treatment. It is suggested that future research contrast EMD/R with known active placebo protocols. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Anxiety Disorders  College Students  Empirical Study  Life Experiences  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Survivors  Treatment Effectiveness  


9. Johnson, M. D. (1997, June). Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on test anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 57(12-B), 7730.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was introduced (Shapiro, 1989) as a treatment for traumatic memories. The necessity of eye movements or another activating stimuli in the treatment of test anxiety and the effectiveness of EMDR as a treatment for test anxiety is the focus of the present study. This study screened subjects for adequate study skills and the presence of test anxiety, and randomly assigned 45 subjects to one of three conditions: EMDR, EMDR with no activating stimuli (EMDR/NS; eyes closed), and a no treatment control group. The results of this study suggest that EMDR and EMDR/NS were equally effective in treating test anxiety and more effective than the control group as measured by the Achievement Anxiety Test, the Emotionality scale of the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), the Subjective Units of Disturbance scale, and the Validity of Cognition scale. Test performance and the Worry Scale of the TAI were not significantly impacted by the treatment groups. The inability of EMDR to impact the worry scale or the test performance of subjects in this study draws into question the usefulness of EMDR as a treatment of test anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: Empirical Study  Test Anxiety  


10. Kahveci, S. & Karakus, D., (2009, June). The effect of RDI on test anxiety with a group setting of adolescents. Presentation at the 10th EMDR Europe Association Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Keywords: Adolescents  Group Setting  RDI  Research  Test Anxiety  


11. Kavakcı, O., Yildirim, O., & Swan, N. (2010). Travma sonrası stres bozukluğu ve sınav kaygısı için EMDR: Olgu sunumu [EMDR for post traumatic stress disorder and test anxiety: A case report]. Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 42-47.

Language: Turkish

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Travma sonrası stres bozukluğu (TSSB) gelişmesine yol açan etkenlerden biri de trafik kazalarıdır ve Türkiye'de oldukça yaygındır. Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme (EMDR) son yıllarda özellikle travma sonrası stres bozukluğunda (TSSB) etkili olduğu gösterilmiş bir yaklaşımdır. Sınav kaygısı; öğrenciler için sıklıkla akademik alanda performans düşüklüğü ve psikolojik problemlerle birlikte olan önemli bir sorundur. Sınav kaygısı olanlar; değerlendirileceği zaman gerilim, endişe ve santral sinir sisteminin aşırı uyarılmasını içeren istenmeyen bir durum yaşarlar. Endişe içeren tekrarlayıcı düşünceler, kendini eleştiren felaketleştirici düşünceler, fizyolojik uyarılmışlık ve belirgin duygusal sıkıntı sınav kaygısına eşlik eder. Sınavlarla ilgili olumsuz deneyimler sınav kaygısının oluşmasına neden olabilmektedir. Sınav kaygısının tedavisi için çeşitli psikoterapi yöntemlerinin yararlı olduğu bildirilmiştir. Sınav kaygısı tedavisinde EMDR denediğini bildiren az sayıda yayın vardır. Bu çalışmada trafik kazası sonrası TSSB gelişen ve EMDR uygulanması sonucunda iyileşen 17 yaşında bir olgu sunulmuştur. TSSB belirtilerinin düzelmesinin ardından üniversite giriş sınavı ile ilgili yoğun korku ve kaygı bildiren hastada, bu kaygının önceki olumsuz sınav yaşantıları ile ilişkili olduğu belirlenmiş, bu yaşantılarına yönelik EMDR tedavisi sonunda sınav kaygısı belirtilerinde belirgin düzelme görülmüştür.

Prevalence of traffic accidents is very high in Turkey and traffic accidents are one of the underlying reasons of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a new therapeutic method which is effective for PTSD. Test anxiety is a significant problem for students which leads to a decline in academic performance and cause severe psychological problems. People with test anxiety experience undesirable symptoms like tension, worry and overstimulation of the central nervous system when they are under evaluation. Recurrent worried, self-critical and catastrophic thoughts and physiologic arousal accompany test anxiety. Negative experiences about examinations can lead to test anxiety. Various psychoterapeutic approaches have been reported that are beneficial in the treatment of test anxiety. Few publications have reported trial of EMDR in the treatment of test anxiety. We describe a 17 year-old girl who had PTSD following a traffic accident and who was treated by EMDR. After treatment of PTSD, the girl reported intense fear and anxiety about the university entrance examination. This anxiety was associated with negative experiences about previous examinations. EMDR treatment focused on these negative experiences and significant improvement was obtained.

Keywords: Case Report  Posttraumatic Stress Disorer  PTSD  Test Anxiety  Traffic Accidents  


12. Kavakci, O., Yildirim, O., & Kugu, N. (2010). Travma sonrasý stres bozukluđu ve sýnav kaygýsý için EMDR: Olgu sunumu [EMDR for postraumatic stress disorder and test anxiety: A case report]. Klinik Psikiyatri Dergisi, 13(1), 42-47.

Language: Turkish

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Travma sonrası stres bozukluğu (TSSB) gelişmesine yol açan etkenlerden biri de trafik kazalarıdır ve Türkiye'de oldukça yaygındır. Göz hareketleri ile duyarsızlaştırma ve yeniden işleme (EMDR) son yıllarda özellikle travma sonrası stres bozukluğunda (TSSB) etkili olduğu gösterilmiş bir yaklaşımdır. Sınav kaygısı; öğrenciler için sıklıkla akademik alanda performans düşüklüğü ve psikolojik problemlerle birlikte olan önemli bir sorundur. Sınav kaygısı olanlar; değerlendirileceği zaman gerilim, endişe ve santral sinir sisteminin aşırı uyarılmasını içeren istenmeyen bir durum yaşarlar. Endişe içeren tekrarlayıcı düşünceler, kendini eleştiren felaketleştirici düşünceler, fizyolojik uyarılmışlık ve belirgin duygusal sıkıntı sınav kaygısına eşlik eder. Sınavlarla ilgili olumsuz deneyimler sınav kaygısının oluşmasına neden olabilmektedir. Sınav kaygısının tedavisi için çeşitli psikoterapi yöntemlerinin yararlı olduğu bildirilmiştir. Sınav kaygısı tedavisinde EMDR denediğini bildiren az sayıda yayın vardır. Bu çalışmada trafik kazası sonrası TSSB gelişen ve EMDR uygulanması sonucunda iyileşen 17 yaşında bir olgu sunulmuştur. TSSB belirtilerinin düzelmesinin ardından üniversite giriş sınavı ile ilgili yoğun korku ve kaygı bildiren hastada, bu kaygının önceki olumsuz sınav yaşantıları ile ilişkili olduğu belirlenmiş, bu yaşantılarına yönelik EMDR tedavisi sonunda sınav kaygısı belirtilerinde belirgin düzelme görülmüştür.

Prevalence of traffic accidents is very high in Turkey and traffic accidents are one of the underlying reasons of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a new therapeutic method which is effective for PTSD. Test anxiety is a significant problem for students which leads to a decline in academic performance and cause severe psychological problems. People with test anxiety experience undesirable symptoms like tension, worry and overstimulation of the central nervous system when they are under evaluation. Recurrent worried, self-critical and catastrophic thoughts and physiologic arousal accompany test anxiety. Negative experiences about examinations can lead to test anxiety. Various psychoterapeutic approaches have been reported that are beneficial in the treatment of test anxiety. Few publications have reported trial of EMDR in the treatment of test anxiety. We describe a 17 year-old girl who had PTSD following a traffic accident and who was treated by EMDR. After treatment of PTSD, the girl reported intense fear and anxiety about the university entrance examination. This anxiety was associated with negative experiences about previous examinations. EMDR treatment focused on these negative experiences and significant improvement was obtained.

Keywords: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Test Anxiety  


13. Maxfield, L. (2003). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: An evaluation of single-session treatment of test anxiety. (Master's thesis, Lakehead University). AAT MQ52067.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Keywords: Single-Session  Test Anxiety  


14. Maxfield, L., & Melnyk, W. (2000, April). Single session treatment of test anxiety with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). International Journal of Stress Management, 7(2), 87-101. doi:10.1023/A:1009580101287.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
One session of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) appeared to be an effective treatment for test anxiety, reducing reported physiological distress, worry, and fears of negative evaluation. The research design included two components: a comparison study, comparing Immediate Treatment and Wait List groups, and a replication study comparing the treatment response of Immediate and Delayed (Treated Wait List) groups. 17 test anxious university students were randomly assigned to one session of EMDR or Wait List. At post-test, the Immediate group demonstrated significant improvement, compared to the Wait List group, on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) and Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. The Wait List group received treatment after post-measures were taken. Treatment of the Delayed group replicated effects. Improvement was reflected by large treatment effect sizes and a decrease in percentile ranking on the TAI from the 90th to the 50th percentile (Pilots).

Keywords: Anxiety Disorders  Brief Psychotherapy  College Students  Empirical Study  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Psychotherapeutic Processes  PTSD  Random Clinical Trial  RCT  Stressors  Survivors  Test Anxiety  Treatment Effectiveness  Treatment Outcome  


15. Maxfield, L., & Melnyk, W. T. (1999, June). Single session treatment of test anxiety with EMDR. Poster presented at the 4th EMDR International Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Keywords: Poster  Single Session  Test Anxiety  


16. Maxfield, L., & Melnyk, W. T. (1999, November). Single session treatment of test anxiety with EMDR. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Toronto, ON.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Keywords: Poster  Single Session  Test Anxiety  


17. Meneses, J. A. (2007, November). Efectividad del EMDR, en la reducción de la ansiedad extrema a los exámenes académicos, en las alumnas de los sextos cursos del instituto tecnológico “Eloy Alfaro”, de la ciudad de Esmeraldas, Ecuador, durante el ańo 2.006 [Effectiveness of EMDR in reducing extreme anxiety, academic tests, students in the sixth high school courses technological "Eloy Alfaro" City Esmeraldas, Ecuador, during the year 2006]. Presentation at the 1st EMDR Ibero-American Conference, Brasilia, Brasil.

Language: Spanish

Format: Conference

Abstract:
Objetivos de aprendizaje: • Demostrar que EMDR es efectivo también para reducir la ansiedad extrema a los exámenes académicos. • Informar que EMDR reduce además a niveles normales los sistemas de respuestas de ansiedad cognitiva, fisiológica, y motora y la ansiedad a la evaluación. • Concienciar que EMDR provoca también cambios cognitivos, emocionales y conductuales, como por ejemplo: el aumento de la autoestima y de la autoeficacia. • Comunicar que luego del estudio de seguimiento, se estableció que EMDR, es efectivo en la reducción de la ansiedad extrema a los exámenes, en forma estable, es decir, sin que se produzcan recaídas o sustitución de síntomas.

Learning Objectives: • Demonstrate that EMDR is effective also for reduce extreme anxiety tests academics. • Inform that EMDR also reduces levels normal response systems cognitive anxiety, physiological, and motor and evaluation anxiety. • Raise awareness that EMDR also results cognitive, emotional and behavioral such as: increased self-esteem and self-efficacy. • Communicate that after the follow-up study established that EMDR is effective in reducing the extreme anxiety examinations, in a stable, ie without relapses occur or replacement of symptoms.

Keywords: Ecuador  Test Anxiety  


18. Meneses, J. A. (2008). Comprobación de la efectividad del EMDR en la reducción de la Ansiedad Extrema a los exámenes académicos [Checking the effectiveness of EMDR in reducing extreme anxiety to academic examinations . En P. Solvey & R. C. Ferrazzano de Solvey (Series Eds.), Terapias de avanzada. Volume 4. EMDR: Avances en teoria y tecnica (1ra ed.) (pp. 209-220). Buenos Aires: TdeA Ediciones.

Language: Spanish

Format: Book Section

Abstract:

Keywords: Test Anxiety  


19. Munshi, C., & Mehrotra, S. (2014, January). A study on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a strategy for reducing high test anxiety in students of 12th grade. In EMDR and research (Udi Oren, Chair). Presentation at the 2nd EMDR Asia International Conference, Manila, The Philippines.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Abstract:
The present study is an attempt to explore the effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a psychological intervention in reducing test anxiety among 12 grade students. 120 high test anxious students selected for the study. A pre-test post-test control group design was used for the study. In the pre-test condition all the students were pretested on Test Anxiety Inventory(Spielberger, 1980).The high test anxious students were selected and divided into experimental group (EMDR intervention) and control group (No EMDR intervention).This was followed by the individual EMDR intervention. The students belonging to control group were not exposed to any EMDR intervention. In the post test condition all the students from the experimental and control group were again tested for TAI. To test the significance difference between the experimental and control group ‘t’ test of significance was used. On the variable of test anxiety the difference was found to be significant (t(119) = 6.442, p<.01) suggesting that intervention had a positive effect on test anxiety in experimental group.

Keywords: Students  Test Anxiety  


20. Sellers, J. L. (1997, October). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure as compared to accelerated massed desensitization in the treatment of test anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 58(4-B), 2139.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) procedure had been widely promoted as an effective anxiety reducing treatment, yet the methodology of many studies has not been adequate to clearly investigate the procedure (Lohr, Kleinknecht, Conley, Dal Cerro, Schmidt, & Sonntag, 1992) and comparison treatments have been inappropriately applied (Lohr, Kleinknecht, Tolin & Barrett, 1995). This study compared EMDR and Accelerated Massed Desensitization (AMD), which has been empirically supported as a short term intervention in the treatment of test anxiety. All participants were screened for participation and 38 were determined test anxious, according to the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI; Spielberger, 1980). No subjects were involved in any form of relaxation training or taking any medications to reduce anxiety at the time of their participation. All participants were recruited from college and university classes in the Orange and San Bernardino counties and were paid $10 for their participation. Six therapists and the primary investigator conducted therapy sessions for both treatments. All therapists completed the EMDR training, completed relevant reading materials for the AMD procedure, and followed protocols for both procedures throughout the therapy sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the EMDR or AMD treatment condition and a therapist. Participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, 1983) and the Subjective Units of Distress scale (SUD; Wolpe, 1982) measures at pre and post treatment and at pre and post in-class exam. Participants received two sessions of treatment for each of the conditions. This study hypothesized that the EMDR treatment would significantly reduce anxiety as measured by the STAI and the SUD as compared to the AMD treatment. This study also hypothesized that EMDR would significantly reduce anxiety in both treatment and in vivo settings. Supplementary hypotheses predicted that the AMD treatment would reduce anxiety in both the treatment and in vivo settings. Results indicated that students in the AMD condition experienced more anxiety reduction than students in the EMDR condition. However, both treatments were effective in reducing anxiety in both the treatment and in vivo setting, as measured by the STAI and SUD scales. These results suggest that both treatments may be effective for reducing anxiety. However, the AMD treatment led to greater reductions in anxiety, as compared to the EMDR treatment. It is suggested that further research of the EMDR procedure include suitable comparison groups in order to assess its effectiveness and allow clinicians to choose appropriate treatments based on empirical support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: College or University Students Identified As Test Anxious  Efficacy of Eye Movement vs Accelerated Massed Desensitization for Treating Test Anxiety  Psychotherapeutic Techniques  Sellers  Test Anxiety  


21. Stevens, M. J., & Florell, D. (1999). EMDR as a treatment for test anxiety. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18(4), 285-296. doi:10.2190/FJWQ-HKQQ-UEJW-6VLH .

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
We assigned sixty-two test-anxious undergraduates to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), rational emotive therapy (RET), and information only, which were administered in a single session by trained, "blind" therapists. At posttest, EMDR was most effective in reducing distress whereas RET decreased global test anxiety more than information only. These results may reflect the differential impact of EMDR and RET on verbalized distress and on combined affective and cognitive dimensions of test anxiety, respectively. Perceptions of therapist credibility and helpfulness of treatment moderated the results. We discuss the clinical and research implications of these findings.

Keywords: Empirical Study  Information  Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy  Test Anxiety  


22. Stevens, M. J., & Florell, D. W. (1997, August). EMDR as a treatment for test anxiety. Presentation at the 105th American Psychological Association Annual Convention, Chicago, IL.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Abstract:
We assigned sixty-two test-anxious undergraduates to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), rational emotive therapy (RET), and information only, which were administered in a single session by trained, "blind" therapists. At posttest, EMDR was most effective in reducing distress whereas RET decreased global test anxiety more than information only. These results may reflect the differential impact of EMDR and RET on verbalized distress and on combined affective and cognitive dimensions of test anxiety, respectively. Perceptions of therapist credibility and helpfulness of treatment moderated the results. We discuss the clinical and research implications of these findings.

Keywords: Information  Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy  Test Anxiety  


23. Ten Cate, H. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) facilitating rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) in the treatment of test anxiety. (Master's thesis, Stellenbosch University). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/50960.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:

Keywords: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy  REBT  


24. Vienot, R. C. (1998, July). A comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59(1-B), 0430.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment, Biofeedback/Stress Inoculation Training (B/SIT) treatment, and no treatment (NT) were compared in treating test anxiety. Subjects (30) reporting test anxiety were randomly assigned to EMDR, B/SIT or NT. Treatment consisted of three 90 minute sessions using B/SIT and one 45 minute session/three 75 minute sessions using EMDR. Treatment therapists were licensed psychologists, counselors or social workers with two to twenty years experience using EMDR or B/SIT. Subjects in the NT group were offered treatment following the study. Six dependent variables were measured pre/post: trait and state anxiety (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T.S.), test anxiety (Test Anxiety Inventory, TAI-T.W.E.), rationality of personal beliefs (Rational Behavior Inventory, RBI), negative self statements (TAI-W) and self report of physiological response (Autonomic Perception Inventory, APQ) using.05 level. ANOVAs were performed followed by a Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison. There was a significant interaction between pre-post tests and type of group on all dependent measures except the RBI. EMDR showed a tendency toward greater improvement from pre to post test than B/SIT and NT. There were no significant differences between groups on the pre test. Post group means indicated: (a) STAI-S, there was no difference between the groups; (b) STAI-T and APQ, EMDR and B/SIT had a greater reduction than NT; (c) TAI-E, EMDR showed more reduction than B/SIT and NT; (d) TAI-T and W, there were differences between all three groups with EMDR showing the most reduction. A meta-analysis was performed to determine clinical significance. Prior to treatment all three groups were above the normative effect size of 1 SD. The NT group showed no change on post tests. The EMDR group showed a larger reduction in effect size than B/SIT. Based on the data both EMDR and B/SIT reduced test anxiety with EMDR generally outperforming B/SIT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: Biofeedback/Stress  Biofeedback Training  Empirical Study  Inoculation Training  Stress Management  Test Anxiety  Treatment Outcome/Clinical Trial  


25. Vienot, R. C. (1999, June). A comparison of EMDR and biofeedback/stress inoculation training in treating test anxiety. Presentation at the 4th EMDR International Association Conference, Las Vegas, NV.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Abstract:
Participants will: 1) be able to identify issues and problems in treating test anxiety; 2) be able to identify the basic components of both the EMDR and biofeedback/stress inoculation training protocols used in this study; 3) learn the EMDR protocol used in treating test anxiety; 4) learn how EMDR, biofeedback/stress inoculation training, and a no-treatment group compare in treatment effect size on six dependent variables; and 5) learn how EMDR, biofeedback/stress inoculation trainlng and a no-treatment group compare in clinical significance on five dependent variables.

Keywords: Biofeeback  Stress Inoculation  Test Anxiety