Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Ligeon, S. N. (2011). De invloed van oogbewegingen en klikjes op de naarheid en levendigheid van negatieve herinneringen [The influence of eye movements and clicks into the nature and vibrancy of negative memories]. Utrecht, Nederlands: Universiteit Utrecht.
Abstract: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a widely applied therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this therapy patients make eye movements while recalling traumatic memories. It is suggested that EMDR taxes working memory and this reduces ratings of the vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories. Although this has been studied extensively for the effectiveness of eye movements, research on bilateral beeps is scarce. Whit a sample of 42 students we compared the effectiveness of eye movements and bilateral beeps. Results indicate that eye movements are more effective in reducing vividness and emotionality of negative memories. Indirectly testing a mechanism proposed by the Working Memory Theory, we found that participants with a larger working memory focused their attention more on the memory as compared to students with a smaller working memory. In sum we conclude that bilateral beeps are inferior to eye movements in the reduction of vividness and emotionality of memories
2. van Uijen, S. L. (2010). Taxing working memory during memory recall and the startle reflex. Utrecht, Nederlands: Universiteit Utrecht.
A dual-task during recall of an emotional memory reduces its vividness and emotionality, which may be due to both tasks competing for limited working memory (WM) resources. The dose-response relationship between WM taxing during memory recall and its benefits was investigated. Additionally, the fear-potentiated startle reflex was measured to obtain more objective information about the expected decrease in vividness and emotionality. Participants recalled negative and positive memories while performing no dual-task, a moderately taxing dual-task (eye movements), or a very taxing dual-task (Tetris), after which vividness, emotionality and the startle reflex were measured. Compared to no dual-task, eye movements and Tetris similarly decreased image vividness and/or emotionality, and the startle reflex. The findings suggest a WM account of EMDR, which indicates that a concurrent task is beneficial because it taxes WM during memory recall; and that WM taxing during memory recall and its benefits are not linearly related.