Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Cole, F. J. (1996, November). The effect of alpha theta brainwave production on self-efficacy in the treatment of substance abuse. California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno, CA. AAT 9734483.
Two new brief treatments, Alpha Theta Brainwave Training (ATBT) and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) were compared to Systematic Muscle Relaxation (SMR) training during the treatment of 45 hospitalized veterans in the Chemical Dependency Treatment Program of the Fresno Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Fifteen veterans were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, ATBT, EMDR, and SMR, to investigate whether these treatments affected self-efficacy, or confidence in the ability to resist the urge to drink. In behavioral change, self-efficacy levels are consistent predictors of short and long-term success. It was hypothesized that the greater the amount of time spent in theta brainwave frequency (4-8 Hz) during treatment, the greater the increase in self-efficacy. Brainwave activity, temperature, skin conductance and electromyographic levels were recorded during the treatment sessions. Measures of self-efficacy, self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy, and level of overall physical and emotional symptoms were taken before and after treatment. Results indicated that all treatments increased self-efficacy and decreased overall physical and emotional symptoms in alcoholic subjects. Overall, there was no significant difference in the amount of time spent in theta brainwave frequency between groups, but results indicated that the treatments did produce a significant difference in the amount of time spent in theta brainwave frequency between the first and last treatment sessions in the groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 58(5-B), Nov 1997, pp. 2667.
2. Silver, S. M., Rogers, S., & Russell, M. C. (2008, August). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of war veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(8), 947-957. doi:10.1002/jclp.20510.
Recent practice guidelines and meta-analyses have designated eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a first-line treatment for trauma. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is an eight-phase therapeutic approach guided by an information-processing model that addresses the combat veteran's critical incidents, current triggers, and behaviors likely to prove useful in his or her future. Two case examples of combat veterans illustrate the ability of EMDR to achieve symptom reduction in a variety of clinical domains (e.g., anxiety, depression, anger, physical pain) simultaneously without requiring the patient to carry out homework assignments or discuss the details of the event. The treatment of phantom limb pain and other somatic presentations is also reviewed. The ability of EMDR to achieve positive effects without homework indicates that it can be effectively employed on consecutive days, making it especially useful during combat situations. [Wiley]
3. Zimmermann, P., Guse, U., Barre, K., & Biesold, K. (2005, Juni). EMDR - Therapie in der bundeswehr - Zurwirksamkeit untersuchung posttraumatischer belastungsstörungv [EMDR in the German armed forces - Therapeutic impact of inpatient therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder / EMDR]. Krankenhauspsychiatrie, 16(2), 57-63. doi:10.1055/s-2004-830275.
In dieser retrospektiven Studie 89 deutsche Soldaten, die als stationäre zur posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung behandelt wurden, zwischen 1998 und 2002 untersucht wurden. Nach einer mittleren von 29 Monaten mit Fragebögen They Were neu bewertet. Behandelt wurden 20 Patienten mit EMDR Konnte bis 14 Patienten mit einer unterstützenden Behandlung verglichen werden. Die Ergebnisse (Jes SOUTH. Voc) direkt nach der Behandlung und in der Langzeit-Follow-up waren deutlich überlegen in der EMDR-Gruppe im Vergleich zu den Kontrollen. Traumatisierte Soldaten in Out-of-area-Einsätze eher eine bessere als die kurzfristigen Ergebnisse Traumatisierte Soldaten in Deutschland haben. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, alle Rechte vorbehalten)
In this retrospective study 89 German soldiers being treated as inpatients for a posttraumatic stress disorder between 1998 and 2002 were investigated. After a mean of 29 months they were reevaluated with questionnaires. 20 patients treated with EMDR could be compared to 14 patients with a supportive treatment. The results (Isa. SUD. VoC) directly after treatment and in the long-term follow-up were significantly superior in the EMDR group compared to the controls. Soldiers traumatized in out-of-area missions tended to have a better short-term outcome than traumatized soldiers in Germany. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)
Keywords: Empirical Study Inpatient Therapy Hospitalized Patients Longitudinal Study Military Veterans Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, Psychotherapy, Stress Quantitative Study Retrospective Study