Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Kim, E., Bae, H., & Park, Y. C. (2008). Validity of the subjective units of disturbance scale in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(1), 57-62. doi:10.1891/1933-3126.96.36.199.
To test the psychometric properties of the Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS), this study analyzed the data from 61 patients treated with EMDR. The pretreatment self-reported questionnaires, the in-session records of EMDR, and the Clinical Global Impression-Change (CGI-C) scale at the termination of EMDR were reviewed. The initial score of the SUDS at the first session was significantly correlated with the patient's level of depression, the state anxiety, and distress from the impact of events. The final score of the SUDS at the first session was significantly correlated with the CGI-C score at termination. Consequently, this study confirmed that the SUDS in EMDR sessions has good psychometric properties. [Author Abstract]
2. Oh, D. H., & Choi, J. (2007). Changes in the regional cerebral perfusion after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A SPECT study of two cases. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 24-30. doi:10.1891/1933-3188.8.131.52.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has emerged as a promising new treatment for trauma and other anxiety-based disorders. However, the neurobiological mechanism of EMDR has not been well understood. This study reports changes in the resting regional cerebral blood flow after successful EMDR treatment in 2 patients with PTSD. Brain 99mTc-ECD-SPECT (Technetium 99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer-single photon emission computerized tomography) was performed before and after EMDR, and, in addition, a pre- and posttreatment comparison was made with 10 non-PTSD participants as a control group. After EMDR, cerebral perfusion increased in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and decreased in the temporal association cortex. The differences between participants and normal controls also decreased. Changes appeared mainly in the limbic area and the prefrontal cortex. These results are in line with current understanding of neurobiology of PTSD. EMDR treatment appears to reverse the functional imbalance between the limbic area and the prefrontal cortex. [Author Abstract]
Keywords: Adults Brain Imaging Females Koreans Motor Traffic Accidents Neuroimaging Neurophysiology Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Psychiatric Inpatients PTSD Rape RCBF Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography Survivors Treatment Effectiveness
3. Oh, D., & Choi, J. (2004). Changes in the regional cerebral perfusion after EMDR: A SPECT study of two cases. Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Psychiatry, 11(2), 173-180.
Over the last decade, EMDR(Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) has emerged as a promising new treatment for trauma and other anxiety-based disorders. However, neurobiological mechanism of EMDR has not been well understood. Authors report SPECT findings of two patients of PTSD before and after EMDR.Brain 99mTc-ECD-SPECT was performed before and after EMDR treatment. To evaluate the significance of changes in the regional cerebral perfusion, t-test was conducted on the resulting images using SPM99 . In addition, clinical scales(CAPS, CGI, STAI) were employed to asses the changes in the clinical symptoms of the patients. After EMDR treatment, each showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms. The cerebral perfusion increased in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and decreased in the temporal association cortex. The differences in the cerebral perfusion between patients after treatment and normal controls decreased. These changes appeared mainly in the limbic area the and the prefrontal cortex.These results suggest that EMDR may show the therapeutic effect through 1) improvement in the emotional control by increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, 2) inhibited hyperstimuli on amygdala by deactivation of the association cortex, 3) inhibition on past trauma related memory, and 4) keeping the functional balance between the limbic area and the prefrontal cortex. This case report needs further replication from studies with larger sample. [Author Abstract]