Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Russell, M. C. (2008, December). Scientific resistance to research, training and utilization of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in treating post-war disorders. Social Science & Medicine, 67(11), 1737-1746. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.025.
In this study, Barber's [(1961). Resistance by scientists to scientific discovery. Science, 134, 596-602] analysis of scientists' resistance to discoveries is examined in relation to an 18-year controversy between the dominant cognitive-behavioral paradigm or zeitgeist and its chief rival - eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in treating trauma-related disorders. Reasons for persistent opposition to training, utilization and research into an identified 'evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder' (EBT-PTSD) within US military and veterans' agencies closely parallels Barber's description of resistance based upon socio-cultural factors and scientific bias versus genuine scientific skepticism. The implications of sustained resistance to EMDR for combat veterans and other trauma sufferers are discussed. A unified or super-ordinate goal is offered to reverse negative trends impacting current and future mental healthcare of military personnel, veterans and other trauma survivors, and to bridge the scientific impasse.[PUBMED]
2. Schottenbauer, M. A. (2006). Expert therapists and practicing clinicians: Reported prototypical treatments of trauma. The Catholic University of America. AAT 3239353.
PTSD is a frequent psychiatric response to a variety of extreme psychological stressors. While several effective treatments for PTSD such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) have been included on lists of empirically supported treatments, nonresponse rates to these treatments can be high. According to patient report, psychodynamic interventions are more common than CBT for PTSD in the community, yet only one randomized controlled trial has included a psychodynamic treatment for PTSD. This dissertation reviews the treatment dropout and non-response rates in studies of empirically supported treatments for PTSD. Next, a case for the value of psychodynamic treatment of PTSD is made, utilizing empirical research on links between the psychopathology of PTSD and psychodynamic concepts such as defenses and relationship patterns. Then, an empirical study was conducted to find out how psychodynamic and CBT therapists treat patients with PTSD, to discover commonalities and defining characteristics of treatment within each group of respondents, and to delineate the unique contributions of psychodynamic psychotherapy to the treatment of such patients.Therapists who identified themselves primarily with psychodynamic/psychoanalytic or cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientations were recruited online through professional organization listservs. They were randomly presented one of four case studies, describing variations on trauma. Participants then completed a Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort to describe quantitatively their ideal treatment of the given patient. Results indicated many similarities among clinicians of widely different perspectives. Among clinicians who indicated that their primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic, three prototypical treatments were discovered, and among clinicians who indicated that their primary theoretical orientation was cognitive-behavioral, four prototypical treatments were found. Overall, the prototypes in the current study were correlated with, but not identical to, prototypes of PD, CBT, or interpersonal therapy (IPT) developed in previous studies based on experts' ratings. While the literature has suggested that clinicians who treat patients who have PTSD may make alterations in their techniques to address issues that are specific to PTSD, the current study provides some evidence that therapists are not aware of how their treatment for trauma is different from the theoretical approaches they endorse. [Author Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 67(10-B), 2007, pp. 6077.
Keywords: Cognitive Therapy Empirical Study Health Personnel Attitudes Mental Health Personnel Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Psychotherapeutic Processes PTSD Quantitative Study
3. Wolff, R. P. (2004). Evaluation of effectiveness of individual therapy sessions over 60 minutes. California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA. AAT 3158599.
Research has produced few studies that support the 50-minute therapy session as the most effective session length for achieving optimal therapeutic results. This descriptive study attempted to determine differences in therapists' perceptions of how session length might impact therapeutic process, therapeutic outcome, treatment of specific psychological disorders, and if session length preference was based on theoretical orientation or procedures/techniques. A total of 65 practicing therapists drawn from the International Society for the Study of Dissociation, EMDR International Association, Trauma Incident Reduction Practitioners, San Francisco Society of Lacanian Study, and California Psychological Network completed questionnaires regarding their perceptions about psychotherapy for individuals employing longer session lengths versus the standard 50-minute session.Overall frequencies of questionnaire responses and between groups comparisons were analyzed using Chi-Square. The sample endorsed the use of longer sessions at statistically significant frequencies on the following questionnaire items: three therapeutic outcome items: Increases client's satisfaction, Shortens overall duration of therapy, and Facilitates corrective emotional experience; and nine therapeutic process items: Access to client's emotional material, Integration of experience before leaving session, Deepens development of transference, Working through defenses, Access to traumatic experiences, Integrate traumatic experience within session, Working through traumatic experience, and Improving likelihood of breakthrough experiences. The sample also agreed on the use of longer sessions as potentially contributing to positive outcome for treatment of the following disorders: Substance Abuse, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, Social Phobia, PTSD, GAD, and Eating Disorders. The findings of this study suggest that longer session lengths may have a positive impact on therapeutic process, therapeutic outcome, and certain disorders. Specific implications for the field of psychology and suggestions for research are discussed. [Author Abstract]
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 65(12-B), 2005, pp. 6680.
Keywords: Empirical Study Health Personnel Attitudes Individual Psychotherapy Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Psychotherapeutic Processes PTSD Quantitative Study Treatment Duration Treatment Effectiveness