Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography
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1. Becker, C. B., Darius, E., & Schaumberg, K. (2007, December). An analog study of patient preferences for exposure versus alternative treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(12), 2861-2873. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2007.05.006 .
Although several efficacious treatments for PTSD exist, these treatments are currently underutilized in clinical practice. To address this issue, research must better identify barriers to dissemination of these treatments. This study investigated patient preferences for PTSD treatment given a wide range of treatment options in an analog sample. 160 individuals, with varying degrees of trauma history, were asked to imagine themselves undergoing a trauma, developing PTSD, and seeking treatment. Participants evaluated 7 different treatment descriptions, which depicted treatment options that they might encounter in a clinical setting. Participants rated their most and least preferred treatments along with their personal reactions to and the perceived credibility of each treatment. Participants also completed a critical thinking skills questionnaire. Participants predominantly chose exposure or another variant of cognitive-behavioral therapy as their most preferred therapy, and those who chose exclusively empirically supported treatments evidenced higher critical thinking skills. The present study contributes to a growing literature indicating that patients may be more interested in these therapies than indicated by utilization rates. The problem of underutilization of empirically supported treatments for PTSD in clinical practice may be due to therapist factors. [Author Abstract]
Keywords: Adults Americans Cognitive Processes Cognitive Therapy College Students Evidence Based Treatment Exposure Empirically Supported Treatment Patient Preference Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy Psychotherapeutic Processes PTSD Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Stressors Survivors TFT Thought Field Therapy
2. McLean, P. D., & Woody, Sheila, R. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In P. D. McLean & S. R. Woody (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in adults: An evidence-based approach to psychological treatment (pp. 205-241). New York: Oxford University Press.
Format: Book Section
Description and conceptualization (phenomenology; diagnostic trends; prevalence and course); Theoretical perspectives; Assessment (diagnosis; assessment of symptoms; assessing contextual factors: social support, cognitive distortions, avoidant coping, multiple trauma history, occupational adjustment, physical history/pain/litigation; case formulation); Treatment models and guidelines (cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD: education, exposure, cognitive control, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training; specific types of trauma: sexual assault, motor vehicle accident, combat; pharmacological treatment for PTSD; eye movement desensitization and reprocessing [EMDR]; client-treatment matching; minimal vs. optimal interventions; common problems: noncompliance due to fear and avoidance, comorbidity, medical and litigation complications; treatment outcome evaluation and life planning). [Pilots]
3. Rafferty, P. (2005). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: An analysis of a controversial evidence based treatment. The New School for Social Research, New York, NY. The New School Psychology Bulletin, 3(2), 83-105.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an inventive, popular and highly controversial treatment. Within the scientific and professional community, there is divergent support for each side of this debate. The heart of this controversy critically examines the question of whether EMDR is as efficacious as other well-established interventions for the treatment of PTSD. The efficacy of EMDR could be due to its employment of a variety of clinically sound therapeutic procedures, such as those similar or the same as Prolonged Exposure Therapy, and not because of its centerpiece eye-movements. Indeed, some researchers have argued that the eye-movements are completely unnecessary and that EMDR is best understood as an exposure technique (Renfrey & Spates, 1994; Davidson & Parker, 2001; Lohr, Lilienfeld, Tolin & Herbert, 1999). EMDR may be an effective treatment for non-combat related PTSD but is not effective for PTSD etiologically related to combat induced trauma. Thus there are three questions that serve as the focus of this evaluation: is EMDR qualitatively different than Prolonged Exposure Therapy; are the eye-movements necessary for treatment efficacy; and is EMDR effective for combat-related PTSD?