Francine Shapiro Library: EMDR Bibliography

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1. Davidson, J. R. T., Stein, D. J., Shalev, A.Y., & Yehuda, R. (2004, Spring). Posttraumatic stress disorder:  Acquisition, recognition, course, and treatment. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 16(2), 135-147. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16.2.135.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Following exposure to trauma, a large number of survivors will develop acute symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which mostly dissipate within a short time. In a minority, however, these symptoms will evolve into chronic and persistent PTSD. A number of factors increase the likelihood of this occurring, including characteristic autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. PTSD often presents with comorbid depression, or in the form of somatization, both of which significantly reduce the possibilities of a correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Mainstay treatments include exposure-based psychosocial therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as paroxetine and sertraline, both of which have been found to be effective in PTSD. This paper looks at the course of PTSD, its disabling effect, its recognition and treatment, and considers possible new research directions.

Keywords: Comorbidity  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Recognition and Treatment  SSRIs  


2. Freyberger, H. J., & Spitzer, C. (2005, July). Dissoziative störungen [Dissociative disorders]. Der Nervenarzt, 76(7), 893-900. doi:10.1007/s00115005-1956-z .

Language: German

Format: Magazine

Abstract:
Die dissoziative Störungen und Konversion sind mit erheblichen klassifikatorischen, diagnostische und therapeutische Schwierigkeiten, die nur in den historischen Kontext der Diskussion über die Hysterie verstanden werden kann, verbunden. Auch die Einstufung in die ICD-10 und DSM-IV ist heterogen. Prävalenzraten zwischen etwa 3% in der allgemeinen Bevölkerung und bis zu 30% in klinischen Populationen, jedoch beziehen sich auf die große klinische Bedeutung. Realtraumatisierungen eine wichtige Rolle in der Pathogenese. High Komorbiditätsraten mit anderen psychischen Störungen eine Tendenz zu chronischen somatischen Erkrankung und ein Konzept (insbesondere bei Patienten mit Erkrankungen erschweren Umwandlung) der psychotherapeutischen Behandlung. Dies erlaubt die Behandlung Ziele sind sowohl psychodynamische und kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischen in Abhängigkeit entwickelt, möglicherweise mit den Techniken der Trauma-Therapie, wie EMDR (Springer).

The dissociative and conversion disorders are associated with significant classificatory, diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties that can be understood only in the historical context of the discussion on hysteria. Even the classification in ICD-10 and DSM-IV is heterogeneous. Prevalence rates of between about 3% in the general population and up to 30% in clinical populations, however, refer to the great clinical significance. Realtraumatisierungen have an important role in the pathogenesis. High Komorbiditätsraten with other mental disorders, a tendency to chronic somatic disease and a concept (especially in patients with conversion disorders complicate) the psychotherapeutic treatment. This allows the treatment goals are designed both psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral dependence in, possibly with the techniques of trauma therapy such as EMDR (Springer).

Keywords: Chronicity (Disorders)  Comorbidity  Conversion Disorder  Diagnosis  Dissociative Disorders  Epidemiology  Etiology Psychotherapy  Somatization  


3. Friday, S. (2005, September). Using EMDR as an intervention for symptom severity in ADD. Presentation at the 10th EMDR International Association Conference, Seattle, WA.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Abstract:
This study investigated the intervention effects of EMDR on the trauma and behavior symptom severity of ten children, ages 8 to 11, diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a common childhood disorder with increasing prevalence rates that raise questions concerning overdiagnosis, misdiagnoses, and possible inadequate assessment of primary, comorbid, and diffential diagnoses. ADD and trauma have comorbid symptoms that often inhibit an accurate diagnosis. Accurate assessments for ADD and trauma-related attention problems have important behavioral implications for diagnostic intervention and treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate if a three-phased treatment intervention, including EMDR, would show a reduction in the trauma and behavior symptom severity in children with ADD and trauma symptoms.

Keywords: Attention Deficit Disorder  ADD  Comorbidity  Disruptive Behavior Disorders  Elementary School  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  School Age Children  Stressors  Students  Treatment Effectiveness  


4. Friday, S. (2004, September). Using EMDR as an intervention for symptom severity in attention deficit disorder. Presentation at the 9th EMDR International Association Conference, Montreal, QC.

Language: English

Format: Conference

Abstract:
This study investigated the intervention effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) on the trauma and behavior symptom severity of ten children, ages 8 to 11, diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a common childhood disorder with increasing prevalence rates that raise questions concerning over diagnoses, misdiagnoses, and possible inadequate assessment, of primary, comorbid and differential diagnoses. Accurate assessments for ADD and trauma related attention problems have important implications for diagnostic intervention and treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate if a three-phased treatment intervention, including EMDR, would show a reduction in the trauma and behavior symptom severity in children with ADD and trauma symptoms.

Keywords: Comorbidity  Disruptive Behavior Disorders  Elementary School Students  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  School Age Children  Stressors  Treatment Effectiveness  


5. Friday, S. (2003). Using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an intervention for trauma and behavior symptom severity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(6-B), 2901.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
This study investigated the intervention effects of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) on the trauma and behavior symptom severity of 10 children, ages 8 to 11, diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a common childhood disorder with increasing prevalence rates that raise questions concerning overdiagnoses, misdiagnoses, and possible inadequate assessment of primary, comorbid, and differential diagnoses. Accurate assessments for ADHD and trauma-related attentional problems have important implications for diagnostic intervention and treatment planning. The purpose of this research was to investigate if a three-phased treatment intervention including EMDR, a therapy method proven effective in the reduction of PTSD, would show a reduction in the trauma and behavior symptom severity in children with ADHD and trauma symptoms. Evaluation of the efficacy of EMDR in the treatment of ADHD was examined using a multiple-component case study and a repeated measure design for evidence of trauma. Two of the three treatment phases were randomly adjusted from one to three sessions in length, with the intervention method, EMDR, remaining constant for a total of three sessions. Outcome measures were the Subjective Units of Disturbance Scale (SUDS), the Behavioral Assessment of Children Scales (BASC), (teacher and parent forms), and repeated assessments of trauma using the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events Scales (LITE-P&S, parent and student forms), the Child and Parent Reports of Post-Traumatic Symptoms Scales (PROPS & CROPS), and the Problem Rating Scales (PRS). The results from quantitative analysis suggested that the intervention method incorporating EMDR affected a decrease in Externalizing and Internalizing behavior symptom severity and trauma symptom severity in the ADHD children that were studied. Qualitative data suggested that trauma and behavioral symptom severity decreased as a result of the intervention method incorporating EMDR. The results underscore the need for further research to distinguish between the symptom presentation of ADHD and comorbid trauma and behavioral symptoms. A continuous refining of the method of diagnosis and determination of the comorbid disorders is warranted. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Comorbidity  Disruptive Behavior Disorders  Elementary School Students  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Empirical Study  Quantitative Study  School Age Children  Stressors  Treatment Effectiveness  


6. Hase, M. (2009). CravEx: An EMDR approach to treat substance abuse and addiction. In M. Luber (Ed.), Eye movement desensitization (EMDR) scripted protocols: Special populations (pp. 467-488). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.

Language: English

Format: Book Section

Abstract:
Thirty years of addiction research have provided sufficient evidence for the crucial role of memory in drug dependency. The addiction memory (AM) serves as a useful concept for obsessive-compulsive craving to be seen in drug addicted patients (Boening, 2001). The concept of AM and its importance in relapse occurrence and maintenance of learned addictive behavior has gained growing acceptance in the field of addiction research and treatment. The implicit nature of the addiction memory seems to qualify it as a target for EMDR treatment. CravEx (Craving Extinguished), as part of a treatment for comorbid addictive clients, focuses on reprocessing of the addiction memory thus leading to stabilization in the addiction. This chapter presents the eight phases of the CravEx script. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: Addiction  Comorbidity  CravEx  Craving  Drug Abuse  Drug Addiction  Memory  Protocol  Psychotherapeutic Technique  Substance Abuse  


7. Hogan, W. A. (2001, August). The comparative effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of depression. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 62(2-B), 1082.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a unique, short-term therapy shown to be effective in the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Application of EMDR to the treatment of depression was considered based upon the relationship between negative life experience and symptom onset, a pattern common to both PTSD and depression. Evaluation of the efficacy of EMDR in the treatment of depression was accomplished via a comparison with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Because EMDR has been shown to be effective in the treatment of PTSD, the impact of EMDR and CBT upon symptoms comorbid to depression was investigated. EMDR was also compared to CBT assessing the participants' satisfaction. The participants, 15 per treatment group, received either one session of EMDR or cognitive behavioral therapy within the first four sessions. Pre and posttreatment assessment utilized two standardized instruments evaluating self-report of depressive and global symptoms. Participant satisfaction was assessed using a rating scale at posttreatment. Both treatment groups reported significant reductions in depressive symptoms and global symptoms. There were no statistical differences between groups on the symptom measures at posttreatment. Four participants in the EMDR group reported near complete remission of depressive symptoms and large reductions in global symptoms. No participants in the CBT group exhibited this pattern of symptom reduction. Regarding participant satisfaction, participants perceived EMDR to be less negative than CBT primarily due to the increased awareness of negative thoughts common to cognitive behavioral therapy but not experienced in EMDR treatment. The similarity in symptom reduction reported for both groups suggested the undue influence of non-specific treatment effects. The marked remission of symptoms reported by the four participants in the EMDR group parallels the symptom reductions noted in EMDR studies of PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved)

Keywords: Comorbidity  CBT  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  Cognitive Therapy  Depression  Empirical Study  Major Depression  Treatment  


8. Kelley, S. D. M., & Benbadis, S. (2007, March-April). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the psychological treatment of trauma-based psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 14(2), 135-144. doi:10.1002/cpp.525.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Little is known about the types of mental health treatment that are most effective for psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) patients who have high rates of comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) has proved to be effective in the treatment of PTSD, anxiety states, dissociative symptoms and somatoform disorders. This study, which utilized a non-controlled qualitative multiple revelatory case design, integrates EMDR into the psychological treatment of PNES patients with confirmed trauma experiences. With EMDR targeting trauma and dissociative symptoms in three patients, PNES were extinguished in two. Those patients have remained seizure-free for 12-18 months. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: Clinical Case Study  Comorbidity  Emotional Trauma  Empirical Study  Epileptic Seizures  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Psychogeninic Non-epileptic Seizures  Psychological Treatment  Psychogenesis  PTSD  Qualitative Study  Trauma  


9. Kennedy, J. E., Jaffee, M. S., Leskin, G. A., Stokes, J. W., Leal, F. O., & Fitzpatrick, P. J. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder-like symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44(7), 895-920. doi:10.1682/JRRD.2006.12.0166.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
In this article, we review the literature on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD-like symptoms that can occur along with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and concussion, with specific reference to concussive injuries in the military. We address four major areas: (1) clinical aspects of TBI and PTSD, including diagnostic criteria, incidence, predictive factors, and course; (2) biological interface between PTSD and TBI; (3) comorbidity between PTSD and other mental disorders that can occur after mild TBI; and (4) current treatments for PTSD, with specific considerations related to treatment for patients with mild TBI or concussive injuries.

Keywords: Biological Factors  Blast Concussion  Clinical Course  Comorbidity  Concussion  Incidence  Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Rehabilitation  TBI  Traumatic Brain Injury  Treatment  


10. Lovell, C. (2005). Utilizing EMDR and DBT techniques in trauma and abuse recovery groups. In R. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR solutions: Pathways to healing (pp. 263-282). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.

Language: English

Format: Book Section

Abstract:
Marsha Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a wonderfully effective treatment for people with borderline personality. It is a non-blaming, compassionate, therapeutic approach, based solidly on research data about what borderline personality disorder (BPD) is and how to treat it effectively. I have used the techniques of DBT for the past 9 years in trauma and abuse recovery groups for women. DBT provides a solid foundation for the group. EMDR, adjunct therapies, and other trauma related resources complete DBT by including the treatment of trauma within the group setting. The groups are successful in that the intensity of symptoms decreases and the group members report feeling increased competency regulating their emotions. [Adapted from Text, p. 263] [Pilots]

Keywords: Adults  Borderline Personality Disorder  Cognitive Therapy  Comorbidity  DBT  Dialectical Behavior Therapy  Females  Group Psychotherapeutic Processes  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Psychotherapy  PTSD  Stressors  Survivors  


11. Mosca, D., & Lescano, R. (2010, August). TEPT y sus comorbilidades. Clínica y tratamientos eficaces: EMDR [PTSD and its comorbidities. Clinical and effective treatments: EMDR]. Presentation at the VII World Congress of United International Depression and PTSD Symposium, Mendoza, Argentina.

Language: Spanish

Format: Conference

Keywords: Comorbidity  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Treatment  


12. Negadi, F., Pelissolo, A., Jouvent, R., & Allilaire, J. F. (2007, September). Application de l'EMDR en sexotraumatologie: Évolution de la comorbidité psychopathologique à propos d'un cas d'agression sexuelle [EMDR applied to sexual traumatology: Evolution of psychopathological comorbidity in the case of sexual aggression]. Annales Médico-Psychologiques, Revue Psychiatrique, 165(7), 523-528. doi:10.1016/j.amp.2007.06.002.

Language: French

Format: Journal

Abstract:
L'accès thérapeutique des patients victimes d'agression sexuelle est souvent à travers une double perspective: celle du traitement de stress post-traumatique (SSPT) et d'évitement sexuel. En légère ou modérée cas de SSPT, il ya des formes complexes où la comorbidité est plus évident et le taux d'échec thérapeutique est plus important. À l'heure actuelle des méthodes de traitement actif, basé sur l'exposition, plus particulièrement EMDR (désensibilisation des mouvements oculaires et retraitement) considérée comme une thérapie brève et active, donnent de bons résultats dans le traitement de la symptomatologie traumatique. Peu d'études ont été menées sur l'évolution psychopathologique de patients ayant souffert d'agressions sexuelles et qui sont pris en charge par l'EMDR. Dans le cadre d'une étude de cas, les auteurs discutent des éléments indiquant une évolution rapide de la symptomatologie traumatique, l'évitement sexuel et de la régression de l'expression des signes de co-morbidité. [Auteur] Résumé

The therapeutic access of patients victims of sexual aggression is often through a double perspective: That of treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and of sexual avoidance. In light or moderate PTSD cases, there are complex forms in which co-morbidity is more evident and the rate of therapeutic failure is more important. At present active treatment methods based on exposure, more particularly EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) considered as a brief and active therapy, give good results in the treatment of traumatic symptomatology. Few studies have been undertaken on the psychopathological evolution of patients having suffered from sexual attacks and who are being taken care of by EMDR. Within the framework of a case study, the authors discuss elements indicating a rapid evolution of traumatic symptomatology, of sexual avoidance and of regression of the expression of the co-morbidity signs. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Brief Therapy  Clinical Case Study  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Psychopathological Comorbidity  PTSD  Regression  Sexotherapy  Sexual Aggression  Sexual Avoidance  Sexual Trauma  Sexual Traumatology  Victims  


13. Nijdam, M., Pol, M. V. D., Dekens, R., Olff, M., & Denys, D. (2013, January). Treatment of sexual trauma dissolves contamination fear: Case report. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4, 19157. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.19157.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Background: In patients with co-morbid obsessive−compulsive disorder (OCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), repetitive behavior patterns, rituals, and compulsions may ward off anxiety and often function as a coping strategy to control reminders of traumatic events. Therefore, addressing the traumatic event may be crucial for successful treatment of these symptoms.
Objective: In this case report, we describe a patient with comorbid OCD and PTSD who underwent pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
Methods: Case Report. A 49-year-old Dutch man was treated for severe PTSD and moderately severe OCD resulting from anal rape in his youth by an unknown adult man.
Results: The patient was treated with paroxetine (60 mg), followed by nine psychotherapy sessions in which eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) techniques were applied. During psychotherapy, remission of the PTSD symptoms preceded remission of the OCD symptoms. Conclusions: This study supports the idea of a functional connection between PTSD and OCD. Successfully processing the trauma results in diminished anxiety associated with trauma reminders and subsequently decreases the need for obsessive−compulsive symptoms.

Keywords: Combined Treatment  Comorbidity  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  OCD  Pharmacological Treatment  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Psychotherapy  PTSD  


14. Oras, R., de Ezpeleta, S. C., & Ahmad, A. (2004, June). Treatment of traumatized refugee children with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in a psychodynamic context. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58(3), 199-203. doi:10.1080/08039480410006232.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
This study examines the effects of a psychodynamic approach of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in treatment of traumatized refugee children. Among a child psychiatric outpatient refugee team, 13 children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were treated by EMDR incorporated in a traditional psychodynamic therapeutic approach. The Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale for Children (PTSS-C) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) were administered before and after the treatment, to measure the effects. After treatment, a significant improvement was noticed in the functioning level and all PTSS-C scales, mostly in re-experiencing and least in the avoidance symptoms. The improvement in the functioning level was significantly correlated with the reduction of the PTSD-non-related and the depression, but not with that of the PTSD-related symptoms. Used in a psychodynamic context, EMDR is suggested to be effective treatment for traumatized refugee children. Our findings support the hypothesis of child-specific criteria for PTSD.

Keywords: Children  Comorbidity  Depressive Disorders  Empirical Study  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PTSD  Quantitative Study  Refugees  School Age Children  Adolescents  Stressors  Survivors  Trauma  Treatment Effectiveness  


15. Pereira, I. (2012, November). Intervenção psicoterapêutica no tratamento de paciente com a síndrome de fibromialgia [Psychotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome]. In EMDR e fibromialgia. Presentation at the 2nd EMDR Brazilian Congress, Brasilia, Brazil.

Language: Portuguese

Format: Conference

Abstract:
Objetivo: Compartilhar a remissão dos sintomas da Síndrome da Fibriomialgia, com a Intervenção Psicoterapêutica EMDR – Dessensibilização e Reprocessamento através de movimentos oculares. R.M.S. iniciou seu tratamento psicoterapêutico em Outubro de 2010, na Abordagem Cognitiva Comportamental. R.M.S. nasceu em 23/06/1957, estava com 53 anos, viúva, tem duas filhas, uma solteira a outra casada. Sofria um luto há mais de três anos porque não aceitava a morte do marido. Apresentava Depressão e Ansiedade, e outras comorbidades: Anorexia Nervosa, Lúpus, Síndrome de Fibriomialgia. De Outubro de 2010 a Dezembro de 2011, a Intervenção Psicoterapêutica em TCC foi associada à medicação psicotrópica com a qual conseguiu redução dos sintomas depressivos. Fazia uso de outros medicamentos para a Síndrome da Fibriomialgia, Lúpus, assim como recorrentes internações em hospital de Clinica Médica Geral para a realização de procedimentos para a redução da dor intensa no corpo (Síndrome da Fibriomialgia) e de intervenção aos sintomas da Anorexia. Após um período de férias, entraram em contato comigo informando que a paciente estava hospitalizada permanecendo duas semanas com a hipótese diagnóstica de câncer, o que na sequência não foi confirmado, tendo recebido alta hospitalar. A dor intensa no corpo, a dificuldade para respirar permaneciam iguais. Solicitou o retorno para a psicoterapia, quando foi sugerido sobre a Intervenção Psicoterapêutica EMDR. As sessões foram realizadas conforme protocolo do EMDR. Para o Planejamento das Sessões o foco incial era a Síndrome de Fibriomialgia. Foi pedido à paciente para definir onde ela sentia mais dor no corpo, e de imediato mencionou a dificuldade para respirar, com a queixa de dor no peito. Nesta primeira sessão, ocorreram dessensibilização e reprocessamento rapidamente, tendo a mesma solicitado para trabalhar os braços. As sessões foram realizadas duas a três vezes na semana, e ao longo deste processo podem ser ouvidas frases tais quais: “Como pode passei por tantos médicos e estou sendo curada com por uma psicóloga” (sic); “Gastei com tanto medicamento, aqui com você não tomo remédio e não estou sentindo mais dor no meu corpo” (sic). A terapia prossegue a Intervenção Psicoterapêutica EMDR.

Objective: Share remission Syndrome Fibriomialgia, Psychotherapeutic Intervention with EMDR - Desensitization and Reprocessing through eye movements. R.M.S. began her psychotherapeutic treatment in October 2010, Cognitive Behavioral Approach. R.M.S. born on 06.23.1957, he was 53 years old, a widow, has two daughters, one married another maiden. He suffered a bereavement for over three years because they did not accept her husband's death. Presented Depression and Anxiety, and other comorbidities: Anorexia Nervosa, Lupus, Fibriomialgia Syndrome. From October 2010 to December 2011, Psychotherapeutic Intervention in CBT was associated with psychotropic medication which could reduce depressive symptoms. Made use of other medications for Fibriomialgia Syndrome, Lupus, as well as recurrent hospital admissions in Medical Clinic General to carry out procedures for the reduction of pain in the body (Fibriomialgia Syndrome) and intervention for symptoms of Anorexia. After a vacation, contacted me stating that the patient was hospitalized two weeks remaining in the diagnosis of cancer, which as a result was not confirmed, having been discharged. Severe pain in the body, difficulty breathing remained the same. Requested the return for psychotherapy, when it was suggested on EMDR Psychotherapeutic Intervention. The sessions were performed according to the protocol of EMDR. Planning sessions for the initial focus was Fibriomialgia Syndrome. The patient was asked to define where she felt more pain in the body, and immediately mentioned the difficulty breathing, complaining of chest pain. In this first session, desensitization and reprocessing occurred rapidly, with the same request to work the arms. The sessions were held two to three times a week, and during this process can be heard phrases such as: "How can so many doctors and I'm being healed by a psychologist with" (sic), "I spent with both medicine here I do not take medication with you and I'm not feeling more pain in my body "(sic). The therapy continues Psychotherapeutic Intervention EMDR.

Keywords: Comorbidity  Fibromyalgia  


16. Rose, B. K. (2004). Eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR): A treatment protocol for addicted inmates with traumatic histories. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(8-B), 4060.

Language: English

Format: Dissertation/Thesis

Abstract:
Substance Abuse is the use and abuse of mood and mind altering substances often having undesired effects on the lives of those addicted, and having a negative impact on the lives of others. Those addicted may expose themselves and others to physical and psychological harm; may create forensic problems; cause disintegration of the family, and problematic interpersonal relationships. Underlying reasons for addictive behavior include but are not limited to: genetic predisposition, psychosocial involvement, psychobiological complications, developmental conditions, and pre-existing psychological and environmental events. Some deficits found in those addicted include: poor coping skills, inability to problem solve, inability to function in difficult situations, and may use cognitive avoidance as a means of coping with life. The idea that children might be negatively impacted by exposure to substance abuse using parents is not a new revelation. However, the degree of damage done to these children is severe, and more is being learned about the severity of that damage. Children often are enmeshed with their dysfunctional families, and many problems arise involving their inability to maintain intimate relationships with others. Attachment issues may develop in infancy and early stages of maturation, and adversely affect children's ability to function as adults. Abusive pasts and traumatic incidents often may hinder the psychological growth and maturity of those who have experienced trauma and abuse.Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) is a fairly new concept of treatment. It was first designed to address therapy with those who had been exposed to trauma. However, over the past 22 years since its inception, it has been adapted to treat many other types of Axis I disorders. It has been determined that EMDR is useful in addressing substance abuse and other Axis I diagnoses, especially PTSD. Hiller, Knight, and Simpson completed a study with 161 persons who resided at a residential halfway house for newly released inmates. Their results found: 80% of the sample of had psychological problems; 72% had significant drug abuse problems; 58% had concurrent psychopathology and drug abuse problems. Research indicates prison confinement is increasing, and the idea of therapy in the forensic setting is gaining in popularity. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to design a substance abuse program to address the difficulties of substance abuse treatment for the dual diagnosed clients. The data collected from this program will help provide much needed information in order to further research and increase our understanding of the needs of this underserved population. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Comorbidity  Drug Abuse  Prison Inmates  Psychiatric Disorders  Stressors  Survivors  Therapeutic Community  


17. Rost, C. (2003). EMDR in der behandlung von chronischen schmerzen [EMDR in the treatment of chronic pain]. Zeitschrift für Psychotraumatologie und Psychologische Medizin, 1(3), 7-15.

Language: German

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Psychologische Behandlung von traumatischen Belastungsstörungen mit EMDR
Chronische Schmerzen sind in unserer Gesellschaft weit verbreitet und machen das medizinische System immer noch große Probleme. Auffallend ist das häufige gemeinsame Auftreten von psychischen Störungen. Die Bedeutung von Emotionen in Schmerzwahrnehmung und-verarbeitung hat nur in den letzten Jahren untersucht worden. Bisher gibt es nur wenige Studien über die Rolle des Traumas in die Geschichte und das gleichzeitige Auftreten von chronischen Schmerzen und posttraumatischen Belastungsstörungen. Diese Kombination hat Versuche Behandlung von chronischen Schmerzen mit EMDR geführt. Die ersten Ergebnisse der Pilotstudien mit chronischen Schmerzen und Phantomschmerzen Mut zu tun, um diese Anwendung von EMDR am erkunden. Die persönlichen Erfahrungen von Patienten mit chronischen Schmerzen und begleitende PTSD positiv auf die Behandlung von EMDR mit einer Reduktion der Symptome und Schmerzen in Zusammenhang stehen.

Psychological treatment of traumatic stress disorders with EMDR
Chronic pain is widespread in our society and make the medical system still major problems. Striking is the frequent co-occurrence of mental disorders. The importance of emotion in pain perception and processing has been examined only in recent years. So far there are only few studies on the role of trauma in the history and the simultaneous occurrence of chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. This combination has led to attempts at treatment of chronic pain with EMDR. The first results of pilot studies to do with chronic pain and phantom pain courage to explore this application of EMDR on. The personal experiences of patients with chronic pain and concomitant PTSD are positively related to the treatment of EMDR with a reduction of symptoms and pain.

Keywords: Comorbidity, Physical Pain, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, Treatment Effectiveness  


18. Rougemont-Bucking, A., & Zimmermann, E. N. (2012). EMDR-based treatment of psychotraumatic antecedents in illicit drug abusers: A report of two cases. Schweizer Archiv Für Neurologie Und Psychiatrie, 163(3), 107-115.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
The co-occurrence of PTSD and of substance use disorder (SD) is known to be very high. However the question of whether and how to treat such patients remains largely unanswered in the EMDR community. We report on two cases of EMDR-based treatment of heavily affected SD patients in whom psychotraumatic antecedents were identified. EMDR sessions focused on trauma-related material and not on the expression of cue-induced drug craving. The treatment appeared to be a difficult and challenging endeavour. However, some beneficial effects on general comfort and on drug consumption could be observed. A long stabilisation phase was mandatory and the standard EMDR protocol needed to be conducted with much flexibility. Interestingly, there was no provocation of a prolonged psychological crisis or of relapse. Experiencing of emotional stress could be limited to the sessions and dissociation could be absorbed with specific well-known techniques without permanently increasing drug craving. These observations are discussed in relation to previously published concepts of using EMDR in the field of trauma and substance abuse.

Keywords: Addiction  Comorbidity  Dissociation  Illicit Drug Abusers  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  PSTD  Psychotraumatic Antecedents  Substance Use Disorder  


19. Siracusano, A., & Niolu, C. (2006, September-December). Trattamento farmacologico del - Disturbo post-traumatico da stress [Drug treatment of - post-traumatic stress disorder]. Noos, 12(3), 243-276.

Language: Italian

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Complesso caratteristiche sintomatologiche del disturbo. Qui troviamo, mescolati tra loro, i sintomi di ansia, panico, depressione, dissociazione, evasione, deterioramento della memoria. La Società per traumatica Stress Studies (ISTSS) le linee guida suggeriscono alcuni passi: da un debriefing psicologico top e la terapia cognitivo-comportamentale (CBT), seguita dal trattamento farmacologico e di alcuni altri approcci: tecniche psico-sociale e riabilitativo, il movimento degli occhi desensibilizzazione e rielaborazione (EMDR), ipnosi, psicoterapia di coppia e di gruppo, psychothery psicoanalitico. Nel ultimi anni, molti dati dalla ricerca fornire consulenza per l'avvio forte CBT e farmacologiche trattamento subito dopo il trauma (entro 72 ore) solo per gestire dissociazione peritraumatico, ad alto rischio fattore per lo sviluppo di PTSD. Inoltre, quando si avvicina al trattamento del PTSD, è importante prendere in considerazione altre comorbidità con asse I e II e con disturbi abuso di sostanze.

Complex symptomatological features of the disorder. Here we find, mixed up together, symptoms of anxiety, panic, depression, dissociation, avoidance, memory impairment. The Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) guidelines suggest some steps: on the top psychological debriefing and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), followed by pharmacological treatment and some other approaches: psychosocial and rehabilitative tecniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), hypnosis, couple and group psychotherapies, psychoanalitic psychothery. In the last years, many data from the research give strong advice for starting CBT and pharmacological treatment soon after trauma (within 72 hours) just to manage peritraumatic dissociation, high risk factor for the development of PTSD. Moreover, when approaching to the treatment of PTSD, it’s important to consider comorbidity with other axis I and II disorders and with substance abuse.

Keywords: Acute Stress Disorder  ASD  Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy  Comorbidity  Hypnosis  Peritraumatic Dissociation  Psychological Debriefing  Trauma    


20. van Loey, N. E. E., & van Son, M. J. M. (2003). Psychopathology and psychological problems in patients with burn scars:  Epidemiology and management. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 4(4), 245-272. doi:10.2165/00128071-200304040-00004.

Language: English

Format: Journal

Abstract:
Burn injury is often a devastating event with long-term physical and psychosocial effects. Burn scars after deep dermal injury are cosmetically disfiguring and force the scarred person to deal with an alteration in body appearance. In addition, the traumatic nature of the burn accident and the painful treatment may induce psychopathological responses. Depression and PTSD, which are prevalent in 13-23% and 13-45% of cases, respectively, have been the most common areas of research in burn patients. Risk factors related to depression are pre-burn depression and female gender in combination with facial disfigurement. Risk factors related to PTSD are pre-burn depression, type and severity of baseline symptoms, anxiety related to pain, and visibility of burn injury. Neuropsychological problems are also described, mostly associated with electrical injuries. Social problems include difficulties in sexual life and social interactions. Quality of life initially seems to be lower in burn patients compared with the general population. Problems in the mental area are more troublesome than physical problems. Over a period of many years, quality of life was reported to be rather good. Mediating variables such as low social support, emotion and avoidant coping styles, and personality traits such as neuroticism and low extraversion, negatively affect adjustment after burn injury. Few studies of psychological treatments in burn patients are available. From general trauma literature, it is concluded that cognitive (behavioral) and pharmacological (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) interventions have a positive effect on depression. With respect to PTSD, exposure therapy and eye movement reprocessing and desensitization [EMDR] are successful. Psychological debriefing aiming to prevent chronic post-trauma reactions has not, thus far, shown a positive effect in burn patients. Treatment of problems in the social area includes cognitive-behavioral therapy, social skills training, and community interventions. Sexual health promotion and counseling may decrease problems in sexual life. In conclusion, psychopathology and psychological problems are identified in a significant minority of burn patients. Symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders (of which PTSD is one) should be the subject of screening in the post-burn phase and treated if indicated. A profile of the patient at risk, based on pre-injury factors such as pre-morbid psychiatric disorder and personality characteristics, peri-traumatic factors and post-burn factors, is presented. Finally, objective characteristics of disfigurement appear to play a minor role, although other factors, such as proneness to shame, body image problems, and lack of self-esteem, may be of significance. [Author Abstract]

Keywords: Burns  Comorbidity  Epidemiology  Literature Review  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  Predisposition  PTSD  Survivors  Treatment