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1. Sellers, J. L. (1997, October). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure as compared to accelerated massed desensitization in the treatment of test anxiety. California School of Professional Psychology, San Diego, CA. ATT 9729659.
The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) procedure had been widely promoted as an effective anxiety reducing treatment, yet the methodology of many studies has not been adequate to clearly investigate the procedure (Lohr, Kleinknecht, Conley, Dal Cerro, Schmidt, & Sonntag, 1992) and comparison treatments have been inappropriately applied (Lohr, Kleinknecht, Tolin & Barrett, 1995). This study compared EMDR and Accelerated Massed Desensitization (AMD), which has been empirically supported as a short term intervention in the treatment of test anxiety. All participants were screened for participation and 38 were determined test anxious, according to the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI; Spielberger, 1980). No subjects were involved in any form of relaxation training or taking any medications to reduce anxiety at the time of their participation. All participants were recruited from college and university classes in the Orange and San Bernardino counties and were paid $10 for their participation. Six therapists and the primary investigator conducted therapy sessions for both treatments. All therapists completed the EMDR training, completed relevant reading materials for the AMD procedure, and followed protocols for both procedures throughout the therapy sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the EMDR or AMD treatment condition and a therapist. Participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger, 1983) and the Subjective Units of Distress scale (SUD; Wolpe, 1982) measures at pre and post treatment and at pre and post in-class exam. Participants received two sessions of treatment for each of the conditions. This study hypothesized that the EMDR treatment would significantly reduce anxiety as measured by the STAI and the SUD as compared to the AMD treatment. This study also hypothesized that EMDR would significantly reduce anxiety in both treatment and in vivo settings. Supplementary hypotheses predicted that the AMD treatment would reduce anxiety in both the treatment and in vivo settings. Results indicated that students in the AMD condition experienced more anxiety reduction than students in the EMDR condition. However, both treatments were effective in reducing anxiety in both the treatment and in vivo setting, as measured by the STAI and SUD scales. These results suggest that both treatments may be effective for reducing anxiety. However, the AMD treatment led to greater reductions in anxiety, as compared to the EMDR treatment. It is suggested that further research of the EMDR procedure include suitable comparison groups in order to assess its effectiveness and allow clinicians to choose appropriate treatments based on empirical support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 58(4-B), Oct 1997, pp. 2139.
Keywords: College or University Students Identified As Test Anxious Efficacy of Eye Movement vs Accelerated Massed Desensitization for Treating Test Anxiety Psychotherapeutic Techniques Sellers Test Anxiety
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2. Lustig, S., Smrz, A., Sladen, P., Sellers, T. D., & Hellman, S. (2000, January-February). It takes a village: Caring for a traumatized art student. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 7(5), 290-298. doi:10.3109/hrp.7.5.290.
One of the fascinating developments in mental health care in the last decade has been the appearance of specific psychotherapies for various psychiatric illnesses. Perhaps the best known of these is dialetical behavior therapy (DBT), pioneered by Linehan and colleagues for borderline personality disorder and consisting of rigorous group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy within an empathetic and validating psychotherapy setting. Another is eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), described by Shapiro and coworkers as a treatment for PTSD and other anxiety disorders.The following case study involves a patient in a team-treatment setting who benefitted significantly from the use of DBT and EMDR, as well as a complex psychopharmacology regimen, after receiving an extensive battery of psychological tests. The clinicians who were involved with the patient will discuss the aspects of her care for which they were responsible. We do not endeavor to isolate which modality was the "right" one; rather, we are looking at the manner in which each potentiated the others. [Introduction] [Pilots]
Keywords: Borderline Personality Disorder Case Report Child Abuse Cognitive Therapy College Students Drug Therapy European Americans Females Incest Individual Psychotherapy Partial Hospitalization Psychotherapeutic Processes PTSD Rape Survivors Young Adults
Accuracy Verified: Yes