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1. 市井雅哉, 熊野 宏昭 [Ichii Masaya & Kumano Hiroaki]. (1996, July). 急性ストレス障害の阪神・淡路大震災被災者に対する眼球 運動による脱感作法（EMD）の適用 [S-3-4 Application of eye movement desensitization (EMD) to Kobe earthquake victims with acute stress disorder]. ブリーフサイコセラピー研究. 005 / 日本ブリーフサイコセラピー学会 編 [Brief research. 005 / Chapter Society of Japan Brief]. Burifu Saikoserapi kenkyu, 005. [A study of brief psychotherapy. 005 ] 5, 53-68. Niigata : kamedabukkusābisu [Niigata: Kameda Book Services].
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2. 市井雅哉, 熊野 宏昭 [Ichii Masaya & Kumano Hiroaki]. (1996). 急性ストレス障害の阪神・淡路大震災被災者に対する眼球運動による脱感作法(EMD)の適用 ブリーフサイコセラピー研究 [Eye movement desensitization by Kobe earthquake victims with acute stress disorder (EMD) application]. ブリーフサイコセラピー、5、53-70の日本人会 [Japanese Association of Brief Psychotherapy, 5, 53-70].
著者らは、EMDを（眼球運動脱感作）阪神淡路大震災から受けたとのASD（急性ストレス障害）の生存者として1ヶ月と診断地震次の2つの女性に適用されます。セッションの中で、彼らの恐れが減少した。その結果、EMDには、ASDクライアントのPTSDを防ぐために使用できることを示した。 25歳焦がすの女性は当初、外傷に関連する画像（例えば、火）、8の初期SUDにレベルを訴えた。眼球運動（EM）の苦痛のレベルの4つの後に0に減少した。眼球運動の7番目のセット後、彼女はそれが終わると、"として完全に本当だった認知"を評価した。 5ヵ月後には、これらの治療の変更が症状のいずれか再発することなく維持された。関連は、この場合、二次的利得と自己使用で議論された。また、結婚28歳の女性、EMDの治療のセッション中に恐怖感の強いreexperienced地震に関連する症状。迅速SUDには0のレベルに減少したEMの11セットの後に恐れている。同時に、彼女は彼女が望ましい認知または"すべては疑いの余地なくすべての権利"は信じられないと報じた。方法はEMDを適用することで画像や正認知の治療に議論された。また、症状の適用範囲やEMDとEMDRの違いが議論された。
Authors applied EMD (Eye Movement Desensitization) to two women who suffered from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake and diagnosed as ASD (Acute Stress Disorder) survivors one month following the earthquake. Within a session, their fears were diminished. The result showed that EMD can be used for ASD clients to prevent PTSD. A 25 year-old singe woman initially complained of trauma-related imagery (e.g., fire) with an initial SUD level of eight. After four sets of Eye Movement (EM) the level of distress decreased to 0. After the seventh set of eye movement, she rated the cognition "it was over," as completely true. Five months later, these therapeutic changes were maintained without any relapse of symptoms. Associated with this case, secondary gain and self use were discussed. In addition, a married 28-year-old woman, reexperienced earthquake-related symptoms with a strong sense of fear during the therapy session of EMD. The fear quickly decreased to a level of 0 on SUD after the eleventh set of EM. At the same time she reported that she could believe a desirable cognition or "everything is all right" without any doubt. The way to treat imagery and positive cognition in applying EMD was discussed. Furthermore, an applicable range of symptoms, and the differences between EMD and EMDR were discussed.
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3. Muramoto, K. (2001, September). Women's trauma and healing in Japanese culture. Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH. AAT 3007972.
This dissertation explores the reality of women's trauma and the effective treatment for traumatized women in Japanese culture. Current research on PTSD supports the universality of many of the biologically determined components of PTSD experiences, while the importance of considering the cultural aspect of trauma is also stressed. Key research questions were: Can PTSD and trauma-related disorders be diagnosed in Japanese women? To what degree are the trauma theory and treatment methods from the West applicable to Japanese women? The primary research method was a literature review supplemented by interviews with Japanese clinicians and reflections on the author's experience as a psychotherapist.In Japan, the interest in trauma has been rapidly growing in the 1990s, particularly after the year 1995 when the Great Hanshin (Kobe) Earthquake happened. The developing statistics of women's trauma in Japan signify a serious problem to women's mental health, as is found in United States. Although the literature is limited yet, the research indicated that Japanese women suffer almost the same symptoms of PTSD and other trauma-related symptoms as women in the U.S. One distinctive characteristic is that Japanese people tend to complain of physical pain rather than psychological symptoms. The assessment and treatment procedures for traumatized women were not studied enough in Japan. The author illustrated the effective assessment and treatment plan for Japanese women as an example. The Western trauma theories and treatment methods are applicable to Japanese women, requiring some additional devices. Supportive psychotherapy and EMDR seem to be prevalent approaches at present. Creative art therapy and body-centered approaches have the potential to be effective in Japanese culture. Vicarious traumatization in mental health professionals is becoming a serious problem in Japan, too. The author also paid attention to multigenerational trauma in Japanese society. The trauma caused by World War II is reviewed in an effort to suggest the enormity of the task we have in dealing with trauma. It is time for Japanese people to resolve multigenerational trauma so as to stop continuous trauma and to take care of traumatized people. [Author Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. 62(3-B), Sep 2001, pp. 1591.
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