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1. Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2011). The EMDR Protocol for recent critical incidents: Brief report of an application in a human massacre situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5(4), 156-165. doi:10.1891/1933-3188.8.131.52.
This ongoing field study was conducted subsequent to the discovery of clandestine graves with 218 bodies recovered in the Mexican state of Durango in April 2011. A preliminary psychometric assessment was conducted with the 60 State Attorney General employees who were working with the corpses to establish a triage criterion and provide baseline measures. The Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the short posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rating interview were administered, and the 32 individuals whose scores indicated moderate-to-severe posttraumatic stress and PTSD symptoms were treated with the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI). Participants were assigned to two groups: immediate treatment (severe scores) and waitlist/delayed treatment (moderate scores). Each individual client session lasted between 90 and 120 minutes. Results showed that one session of EMDR-PRECI produced significant improvement on self-report measures of posttraumatic stress and PTSD symptoms for both the immediate treatment and waitlist/delayed treatment groups. This study provides preliminary evidence in support of the protocol's efficacy in a natural setting of a human massacre situation to a group of traumatized adults working under extreme stressors. More controlled research is recommended to evaluate further the protocol's efficacy.
Accuracy Verified: Yes
2. Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2012). The EMDR protocol for recent critical incidents: Follow-up report of an application in a human massacre situation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6(2), 50-61. doi:10.1891/1933-3184.108.40.206.
This article reports the follow-up results of our field study (Jarero & Uribe, 2011) that investigated the application of the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents (EMDR-PRECI) in a human massacre situation. A single individual session was provided to 32 forensic personnel of the State Attorney General in the Mexican state of Durango who were working with 258 bodies recovered from clandestine graves. Pre-post results showed significant improvement for both immediate treatment and waitlist/delayed treatment groups on the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and Short PTSD Rating Interview (SPRINT). In this study, we report the follow-up assessment, which was conducted, at 3 and 5 months posttreatment. Follow-up scores showed that the original treatment results were maintained, with a further significant reduction of self-reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress and PTSD between posttreatment and follow-up. During the follow-up period, the employees continued to work with the recovered corpses and were continually exposed to horrific emotional stressors, with ongoing threats to their own safety. This suggests that EMDR-PRECI was an effective early intervention, reducing traumatic stress for a group of traumatized adults continuing to work under extreme stressors in a human massacre situation. It appears that the treatment may have helped to prevent the development of chronic PTSD and to increase psychological and emotional resilience.
Accuracy Verified: Yes
3. Jarero, I., & Uribe, S. (2012). Intervención temprana en salud mental en una situación de masacre humana: Fosas clandestinas en durango 2011 [Early mental health intervention in human slaughter situation: Mass graves in 2011 Durango]. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicotraumatología y Disociación, 4(1).
La Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos solicitó el apoyo de la Asociación Mexicana para Ayuda Mental en Crisis, con la solicitud de atender al personal forense de la Fiscalía General del Estado de Durango en México. Una sola sesión del Protocolo de EMDR para Incidentes Críticos Recientes fue brindada a 32 personas que estuvieron trabajando con 258 cuerpos recuperados de fosas clandestinas. Tanto los resultados estadísticos pre y post tratamiento, como el seguimiento que se hizo a los 3 y 5 meses, mostraron la mejoría de las personas atendidas y una significativa reducción en síntomas de estrés postraumático y de Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático (TEPT), a pesar de que continuaron realizando el trabajo de recuperación de cuerpos extraídos de las fosas clandestinas y estuvieron expuestos continuamente a terribles estresores emocionales. Los resultados estadísticos obtenidos sugieren que la intervención ayudó a prevenir el desarrollo del TEPT en su fase crónica y a incrementar la resiliencia psicológica y emocional.
Nota: Este documento es una reseña de dos artículos publicados por Ignacio Jarero y Susana Uribe en el Journal of EMDR Practice and Research durante 2011 y 2012 titulados The EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incidents: Application in a Human Massacre Situation y Follow-UP Report of an Application in a Human Massacre Situation.
Summary. The National Commission on Human Rights requested the support of the Mexican Association for Crisis Assistance Mental, with the request to address the forensic staff of the Attorney General of the State of Durango in Mexico. A single session of EMDR Protocol for Recent Critical Incident was given to 32 people who were working with 258 bodies recovered from mass graves. Both statistical results before and after treatment, the monitoring was done at 3 and 5 months, showed the improvement of people served and significant reduction in symptoms of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), despite they continued doing the work of recovery of bodies extracted from the mass graves and were continuously exposed to terrible emotional stressors. The statistical results obtained suggest that the intervention helped prevent the development of PTSD in its chronic phase and increase psychological and emotional resilience. Note: This document is a review of two articles published by Ignacio Uribe Jarero and Susanna in the Journal of EMDR Practice and Research in 2011 to 2012 graduates The EMDR Protocol for Critical Incidents Recent: Application in Human Massacre Situation and Follow-Up Report of an Application in a Human Situation Massacre.
Accuracy Verified: Yes